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By the nineteenth century the citadel had lost most of its defensive purpose and a series of outer fortresses and defensive works were constructed to encircle Kars – this new defensive system proved particularly notable during the Siege of Kars in 1855. The Treaty of Kars established peaceful relations between the two nations, but as early as 1939, some British diplomats noted[citation needed] indications that the Soviet Union was not satisfied with the established border.The Treaty of Kars, signed in 1921 by the Government of the Grand National Assembly and by the Soviet republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, established the current north-eastern boundaries of Turkey. [21], From 1878 to 1881 more than 82,000 Muslims from formerly Ottoman-controlled territory migrated to the Ottoman Empire. Russia ceded Kars, Ardahan and Batum to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918. Kars battles for access to Armenia and beyond, Pictures of the city and the nearby city of Ani, Kars Guide and Photo Album by Luc Wouters. Orhan Pamuk in the novel Snow, set in Kars, makes repeated references to "the Russian houses", built "in a Baltic style", whose like cannot be seen anywhere else in Turkey, and deplores the deteriorating condition of these houses. Medieval Armenian historians referred to the city by a variety of names, including "Karuts' K'aghak'" (Kars city), "Karuts' Berd", "Amrots'n Karuts'" (both meaning Kars Fortress) and "Amurn Karuts'" (Impenetrable Kars). Built by the Seljuks, it was restored by the Ottomans in 1579. Le fortificazioni vennero ricostruite dal sultano Murad III e resistettero fino all'assedio di Nadir Shah dell'impero persiano nel 1731. The Kars emirate was a vassal of the Saltukids in Erzurum, whose forces were effective in opposing Georgian attempts at seizing Kars. During the Crimean War an Ottoman garrison led by British officers including General William Fenwick Williams kept the Russians at bay during a protracted siege; but after the garrison had been devastated by cholera and food supplies had depleted, the town was surrendered to General Mouravieff in November 1855. (2011), "Kars-Ardahan and Soviet Armenian Irredentism, 1945–1946," in. According to the Russian census data, by 1897 Armenians formed 49.7%, Russians 26.3%, Caucasus Greeks 11.7%, Poles 5.3% and Turks 3.8%.[22]. [50], Kars is served by a main highway from Erzurum, and lesser roads run north to Ardahan and south to Igdir. We know of 9 airports in the vicinity of Kars, of which 3 are larger airports. [38] In Istanbul alone, there are 269,388 people from Kars, more than three times the city's population.[39][40]. Turkey's border crossings with Armenia, including the rail link, the Kars-Gyumri-Tbilisi railway, have regrettably been closed since April 1993. [10], Little is known of the early history of Kars beyond the fact that, during medieval times, it had its own dynasty of Armenian rulers and was the capital of a region known as Vanand. Luoghi imperdibili per mangiare, bere e festeggiare. Nella prima guerra mondiale la città divenne uno dei principali obiettivi dell'esercito ottomano durante la battaglia di Sarıkamış nella campagna del Caucaso. La linea poi prosegue verso l'Armenia ma è interrotta a causa del confine attuale chiuso dal 1993. The ethnic make-up of Kars is also reflected in politics, with the Turks and Azerbaijanis often voting for the nationalist MHP and the Kurds often voting for the pro-Kurdish HDP. [52] The line connects Kars to Akhalkalaki in Georgia, from where trains will continue to Tbilisi, and Baku in Azerbaijan.[53]. Questi mantennero il controllo di Kars fino alla fine degli anni 1230, dopo i quali venne governata da una serie di piccoli emiri turchi. [13] It was conquered in 1242 by the Mongols; was regained by Georgian Kingdom during the reign of George V the Brilliant (1314–1346), it remained part of the Kingdom before its disintegration, which then passed into the hands of Georgian Atabegs belonging to the House of Jaqeli. Hotel a Kars con accesso diretto alle piste, Hotel vicino a: (LWN) Aeroporto Internazionale Shirak di Gyumri. Il trattato permise l'annessione dell'Agiaria all'Unione Sovietica in cambio del controllo turco della regione di Kars, Iğdır e Ardahan. Most of the population in Kars is Sunni Muslim, mainly the Kurds and Turks, and the minority is Shiite Muslim, mainly among the Azerbaijanis. Built in the 930s, it has a tetraconch plan (a square with four semicircular apses) surmounted by a spherical dome on a cylindrical drum. However, Murad probably ordered to reconstruct much of the city walls (they are similar to those that the Ottoman army constructed at Ardahan). Kars è il Programma completo per la Carrozzeria, tutto su Cloud.Commesse, preventivi tradizionali e preventivi grandine,gestione officina, fatture, ordine ricambi, statistiche, tutto in un unico Software. Il Castello di Kars (Kars Kalesi), conosciuto anche come Cittadella di Kars, si trova sulla cima di una collina rocciosa che domina Kars. Tale guerra portò alla conquista di Kars da parte delle forze turche il 30 ottobre 1920. The Castle of Kars (Turkish: Kars Kalesi), also known as the Citadel, sits at the top a rocky hill overlooking Kars. During the June 2015 elections, Kars was won by the pro-Kurdish HDP, becoming the largest political party in both the city and the province of Kars. Some hills and peaks in the province, especially around the Sarıkamış region, are subarctic (Köppen climate classification Dfc) due to the higher elevation of the region. Non si sa molto della storia iniziale di Kars, a parte il fatto che fosse sede di una dinastia di sovrani armeni del Vanand. [49], Kars hosts the Kafkas University, which was established in 1992. Altro, Crea un Viaggio per salvare e organizzare tutte le tue idee e vederle su una mappa. (As of September 2018, Turkey maintains that the border will remain closed until Armenia). La Turchia si trovò in una posizione difficile: doveva mantenere relazioni amichevoli con l'Unione Sovietica, data l'inferiorità sul piano militare, ma allo stesso tempo rifiutarsi di consegnare quei territori. Scaramucce tra i rivoluzionari turchi e truppe di stanza ad Oltu, sul confine armeno, causarono l'invasione della repubblica armena da parte dell'esercito turco comandato dal generale Kazim Karabekir che diede inizio alla guerra turco-armena. [34] Under pressure from Azerbaijan, and the local population, including the 20% ethnic Azerbaijani minority, the Turkish foreign minister Ahmet Davutoğlu reiterated in 2010 and 2011 that opening the border with Armenia was out of question. [11] During this period the town's cathedral, later known as the Church of the Holy Apostles, was built. Nel 1387 la città si arrese a Tamerlano e le sue fortificazioni vennero danneggiate. In più di un'occasione, i sovietici cercarono di rinegoziare il trattato in modo da avere accesso dall'Armenia alla città di Ani, ma Ankara rifiutò tutte le offerte. Sotto al castello c'è una chiesa armena conosciuta come la Cattedrale di San Arak'elos, la chiesa dei dodici apostoli. Pubblicò un'autobiografia ove descrive gli eventi che interessarono Kars in quel periodo. Following the Peace of Amasya of 1555 that followed through the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1533-1555, the city was declared neutral, and its existing fortress was destroyed. By 1948 the Soviet Union dropped its claims to Kars and the other regions. Kars Harakani 4.1 km: Kars Havaalanı 4.1 km: Diktepe 4.2 km: Azizbey Mağarası 10.1 km: Mezrea İstasyonu 10.1 km: Mezraa İstasyonu 10.1 km: Kır Sırtı 10.5 km: Mezraa İstasyonu 13.1 km: Yayla Dağı 13.2 km: Üçoğlan Tepesi 14.1 km: Üçler Tepesi 14.1 km: Deliktaş Tepesi 14.9 km: Deliktaş Tepe 14.9 km: Küçükyahni Tepesi 15.1 km: Akbaba Dağı 15.1 km: Çalkavur Dağı 15.9 km The church was converted to a mosque in 1579, and then converted into a Russian Orthodox church in the 1880s. On 30 March 2014, Murtaza Karaçanta (MHP) was elected mayor. Below the castle is an Armenian church known as Surb Arak'elots, the Church of the Holy Apostles. The "Taşköprü" (Stone Bridge) is a bridge over the Kars river, built in 1725. Following the war, Kars was transferred to Russia by the Treaty of San Stefano. Most Russian-era buildings in Kars are identical in architectural style to those of Gyumri in Armenia. Anatolian beyliks followed for some time after that, until it firstly fell into the hands of the Kara Koyunlu and subsequent Ak Koyunlu. [18] At the end of the war it returned to Ottoman control for diplomatic reasons, Russia gaining only two border forts. Available online, Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus, Government of the Grand National Assembly, List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkey, "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012", "Geography Stabo - Book XI - Chapter XIV", "Kars Seçim Sonuçları - 31 Mart 2019 Yerel Seçimleri", "The Fall of Kars – April 25, 1918 | Aniarc", "Border Turks Want Door to Armenia Kept Shut", "Armenia border opening out of question, says Davutoğlu", "Turkish, Armenian journalists want the border opened", "The provinces with highest out-migration according to their net migration rate", "Kars, Turkey Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)", "Turkey will not open Armenia border amid Karabakh occupation: Erdoğan - Turkey News", "Baku-Tbilisi-Kars (BTK) railway track becomes operational to carry Chinese goods to Europe", THE CATHEDRAL OF KARS: Holy Apostles Church (Surb Arak'elots), Pictures of the city and the nearby city of Ani, 700+ pictures of city, Kümbet Camii, Kale and Ani, The official city guide of the Kars municipality, Kars Guide and Photo Album by Luc Wouters. The Grand Mosque of Kars is the largest historic mosque in the city. After the Ak Koyunlu, as it went naturally for almost all their former territories, the city fell into the hands of the newly established Safavid dynasty of Iran, founded by king Ismail I., Voci non biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo, Anna Zimmerman, nonna materna del cantante folk. Sul tamburo della cupola è inciso un bassorilievo dei dodici apostoli e la cupola stessa è coperta da un tetto conico. [citation needed]. Molti altri piccoli emiri turchi si succedettero fino al 1534, quando l'esercito ottomano invase la città. Semplice, veloce ed economico. Questa è una versione del sito destinata in generale a chi parla Italiano in Italia. Winters are very cold. Ha ospitato un piccolo museo negli anni sessanta e settanta, poi lasciato in disuso per circa vent'anni, fino alla sua conversione in moschea nel 1998. Kars was in the ancient region known as Chorzene, (in Greek Χορζηνή) in classical historiography (Strabo), part of Roman Armenia. However, temperatures can plummet to −35 °C (−31.0 °F) during the winter months. Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 2 set 2020 alle 21:58. Con l'invasione bolscevica dell'Armenia, il trattato di Alessandropoli fu aggiornato dal trattato di Kars (23 ottobre 1921), firmato da Turchia e Unione Sovietica.

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